Hands-On Relay School – Concurrent Open Lectures

The Hands-On Relay School offers twelve (12) lectures on a wide range of topics relevant to the trade. Each lecture is one (1) hour long and given a total of three (3) times. Students can attend up to six (6) lectures of their choosing.

Communication-aided Tripping
Speaker: Diana Carlson, Idaho Power Company
The fundamental objective of power system protection schemes is to quickly provide isolation of a system problem while leaving the remainder of the system intact. Communication assisted protection schemes are applied to provide high speed tripping for faults over 100% of the transmission line length and are designed to provide either increased dependability or increased security.

CT Testing & Theory
Speaker: Omicron Electronics Corp. USA
Opening an energized current transformer (CT) secondary can result in very hazardous voltages and possible damage to the CT. This is a discussion of how a CT can generate high voltages, some video demonstrations of an open CT secondary, and suggested work practices to safely work on current transformer secondaries.

DC Ground Detection
Speaker: Eric Haut, Portland General Electric
Unmitigated ground paths on ungrounded DC systems pose a threat to reliability and safety. The technology for monitoring and troubleshooting DC grounds has evolved over the decades. This lecture will cover the simple dual-lightbulb monitoring of the past up to today’s digital monitoring systems. Watch hands-on demonstrations of troubleshooting methods, from the simple-but-effective resistive jumper to computerized DC ground locators.

Fault Analysis for Relay Technicians
Speaker: Ken Workman, Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories, Inc.
Event reports continue to be an invaluable feature in microprocessor-based relays. Some events are relatively straightforward to analyze, and others require experience and considerable knowledge of the power system and protective relay system in order to find the root cause. This session provides an outline of the event analysis process, several real-world event examples, time to evaluate them, and solutions.

Breaker Failure Protection
Speaker: Brent Carper, 3AC Engineering
This lecture will review different types of breaker failure protection systems, relays, and logic, including general considerations for determining relay pickup and timing settings.

Capacitive Trip Devices & AC Control Circuits
Speaker: Brent Carper, 3AC Engineering
Although most utility substations traditionally have utilized DC for control circuits, AC control is becoming more common as utilities look to eliminate the maintenance costs and environmental risk associated with large batteries. Long used for industrial and 480V applications, capacitive trip devices (CTD) can be used to reduce or eliminate batteries, or as backup auto-trip protection for DC system failures. This lecture will discuss issues specific to AC control, how CTDs work, and the safety, operational, and engineering aspects that need to be considered.

Test Isolation Tools and Techniques for Technicians
Speaker: Travis Rider, Pacific Gas & Electric
Performing maintenance, construction, and commissioning on complex protection and control systems is becoming increasingly more difficult. This can present greater risks and challenges to Engineers and Technicians that could lead to an undesired outage. Having a comprehensive test and isolation plan can greatly reduce and mitigate these risks. This presentation will highlight different processes, tools, and techniques that can be used when performing isolation for testing.

High Impedance Fault Protection
Speaker: Ken Workman, Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories, Inc.
High-impedance fault (HIF) detection has existed for many years, but current events have been pushing it into the spotlight. Not all HIF events and downed conductors can be detected; therefore, it is important to understand detection methods and performance. This presentation covers topics related to HIF detection methods, their evolution, and limitations.

Phasors
Speaker: Steve Laslo, Bonneville Power Administration
Phasors are the universal language of system protection technicians and engineers. This lecture emphasizes the need for a basic knowledge of phasor diagrams and their use in understanding the power system. Topics include load flow phasor analysis, fault phasor analysis, and using phasors to determine the phase angle across delta-wye transformers banks. It is recommended to take this lecture prior to the Symmetrical Components lecture.

Precision Timing (IRIG)
Speaker: Dan Rippon, Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories, Inc.
Learn about precise timing theory and application in the electric power industry. The presentation will include topics such as time distribution over IRIG and PTP, satellite-synchronized clocks, power system applications of precise timing, installation best practices, and troubleshooting common issues with relay time synchronization.

PT Connections with Phasor–Y Delta, Open Delta
Speaker: Jason Hall and Andrew Wick, Puget Sound Energy
Discussing standard and non-standard PT configurations and their effect on relay protection systems and relevant applications.

Symmetrical Components
Speaker: Stephen Marx, Bonneville Power Administration
Basic principles of symmetrical components with explanation of phasors, per unit system, and symmetrical component equations using sequence networks. Network connections for each power system fault type are analyzed. Samples of protective relay applications using symmetrical component method.

Friday Feature Presentations

Blackout – Deep Dive
Speaker: Michael Wright, Power Grid Engineering
On April 29, 2002 a large municipal power company experienced a city-wide blackout. While the event was triggered by the failure of a 138kV surge arrestor, the blackout was the result of many years of small issues combining on a fateful day in a series of incidents that cascaded into an unrecoverable system collapse. The purpose of this presentation is to share this story so that others might have a better appreciation of how all of the systems supporting a power company work together. This is a story of politics, vegetation management, meter calibration, mis-applied devices, engineering errors, lack of redundancy, situational awareness, and reactive culture.

Little Falls Destructive Testing of Hydro Generator
Speaker: Doug Taylor, Avista Utilities
In the fall of 2018, Avista and SEL performed destructive testing on an 8.8MVA, 4.16kV hydro generator scheduled for upgrade. The purpose of the testing was to provide comprehensive measurements of the generator operating quantities during stator and rotor faults in order to look for methods of detecting these faults with greater sensitivity. This presentation will describe the planning and execution components of the testing, including the fault survey that was performed to identify the appropriate fault locations, the process used to estimate the fault currents, and the test setup, fixtures, and safety precautions that were implemented. Lastly, the presentation will provide an overview of the test results and some of the insights gained from the data.