Hands-On Relay School – Concurrent Open Lectures

Arc Flash Protection
Speaker: Joe Xavier, ABB
Arc flash incidents do occur in indoor switchgear installations. There are several factors which can initiate an arc flash event. Such an event can cause serious damage to the equipment, injure operating personnel, and result in loss of revenue. This lecture will review probable reasons behind arc flash incidents, parameters which influence the incident energy, and arc flash detection and mitigation techniques.

DC Ground Detection
Speaker: Eric Haut, Portland General Electric
Unmitigated ground paths on ungrounded DC systems pose a threat to reliability and safety. The technology for monitoring and troubleshooting DC grounds has evolved over the decades. This lecture will cover the simple dual-lightbulb monitoring of the past up to today’s digital monitoring systems. Watch hands-on
demonstrations of troubleshooting methods, from the simple-but- effective resistive jumper to computerized DC ground locators.

Energy Storage
Speaker: Steve Larson, Snohomish PUD
Energy storage will become increasingly important to electric utilities, as more renewable energy sources are added to the generation mix replacing base-load fossil fuel plants. Battery- based storage systems are being added to utility systems at a rapid rate. This lecture will describe various types of energy storage, including Pumped Hydro Storage, flywheels, compressed air, and the various battery technologies. Mr. Larson will also discuss two operating battery energy storage systems installed at Snohomish PUD, a lithium-ion system installed in 2014/2015 and a vanadium flow battery installed in 2017.

Fault Analysis for Technicians
Speaker: TBD, Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories, Inc.
Event reports continue to be an invaluable feature in microprocessor-based relays. Some events are relatively straightforward to analyze, and others require experience and considerable knowledge of the power system and protective relay system in order to find the root cause. This session provides an outline of the event analysis process, several real-world event examples, time to evaluate them, and solutions.

Ground Mho
Speaker: Steve Laslo, Bonneville Power Administration
This lecture will cover fundamentals of Ground-Distance Relay Protection and Testing. We will examine principles that affect relay settings and decision-making and introduce ground- distance relay concepts such as ‘compensation factor/Kn’, ‘per- phase impedance’, and ‘loop impedance’. We will also discuss how to calculate test quantities for ground-mho and ground-quad characteristics and examine some sample automated test results.

Mho Testing Techniques & Math (Ph-Ph)
Speaker: Rodger Allen, ACS Professional Staffing
Learn or re-visit the considerations to take and the math behind selecting the voltages and currents to test the characteristics of phase-to-phase mho distance units effectively and efficiently. Students will put to use the skills learned from vector math like taught in the phasor lecture by participating in phase-to-phase voltage & current calculations. Test equipment, meters & relays are used to demonstrate those calculations.

Speaker: Steve Laslo, Bonneville Power Administration
Phasors are the universal language of system protection technicians and engineers. This lecture emphasizes the need for a basic knowledge of phasor diagrams and their use in understanding the power system. Topics include load flow phasor analysis, fault phasor analysis, and using phasors to
determine the phase angle across delta-wye transformers banks.

SCADA for Relay Technicians
Speaker: Tracy Kealy, Bonneville Power Administration
Covers aspects of SCADA that most affect relay technicians. This includes an overview of Distributed Network Protocol (DNP) 3.0, Modbus, and troubleshooting common errors from the protective relay/IED configured as a DNP3 or Modbus slave.

Testing Breaker Failure Schemes
Speaker: Chris Werstiuk, Valence Electrical Training Services
Relay testers who want to test breaker failure (50BF) schemes should understand how 50BF schemes are applied, how to perform basic relay testing tasks, and how to interpret and simulate relay logic schemes. This lecture will help you understand and simulate the three main parts of breaker failure protection (50BF initiate, Breaker open/close status, and 50BF time delay) to help you create effective breaker failure test plans that can be applied to any relay with any test-set.

Transformer Aux Protection
Speaker: Brent Carper, 3AC Engineering
Transformer protection includes specialized equipment such as sudden pressure relays, Buchholz relays, temperature monitors, liquid level gauges, gas and moisture monitors, and other devices. This lecture will cover these auxiliary devices and how they function, including trip circuit seal-in, targeting, and lockout relays.

Two- & Three-Winding Transformer Connections and Circulating Currents
Speaker: Abdur Rehman, Puget Sound Energy
This presentation explores common 2- and 3-winding transformer connections and how positive, negative, and zero sequence currents circulate during phase and ground fault conditions. Transformer sequence networks and associated symmetrical components are analyzed.

Understanding and Troubleshooting Real-World Power Quality Problems
Speaker: TBD, Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories, Inc.
This session will be an introduction to the characteristics of power quality (PQ) problems. Real-world examples will be reviewed. The discussion will include symptoms, tools for analysis and prevention measures.